Kusho ukuthini uPluto endlini?

Imibuzo Nezimpendulo Ezinhle Kakhulu - Pluto ezindlini

Kusho ukuthini uPluto endlini?

indawo yokuphila

Isikhathi se-AumSum. Kungani iPluto ayiseyona iplanethi? Ngoba angisahlanyi. Ya ya.

Manje lalela. IPluto yatholwa nguClyde Tombaugh ngo-1930. Ayisathathwa njengeplanethi ngoba ngo-2006.

Izazi zezinkanyezi zinikeze i-IAU incazelo entsha yegama elithi iplanethi. Ngokwencazelo entsha, iplanethi ingumzimba wasezulwini. Okusemzileni ozungeza ilanga.

Inomumo oyindilinga. Futhi isuse indawo ezungeze umzila wayo. Kusho ukuthini lokho? Ngokuyisisekelo, kusho ukuthi isebenzisa amandla ayo adonsela phansi.

Iplanethi bekufanele isuse ama-asteroid namaplanethi amancane endleleni yayo. Ngakho-ke indawo yakhe yasuswa. Manje iPluto isemzileni wayo izungeza ilanga futhi inesimo esiyindilinga.

Kepha njengoba indawo kaPluto inezinye izinto eziningi. Futhi akazange ahlanze indawo yangakubo. Akasabizwa ngeplanethi.

Kungani kuqhuma imikhomo efile? Ngoba kunezinkulungwane zeziqhumane emizimbeni yazo. Misa i-bluffing. Uma umkhoma ofile ugezwa ngephutha olwandle.

Iqala ukubola, ngoba ayidliwa oshaka noma ezinye izinhlanzi. Ngesikhathi sokubola. Kukhiqizwa amagesi ahlukahlukene anjenge-methane ne-carbon dioxide emzimbeni wayo.

Kodwa ngenxa yokuthi kunongqimba olujiyile lwamafutha ngaphansi kwesikhumba semikhomo, amagesi awakwazi ukuphuma emzimbeni womkhomo, awenze ukhukhumale. Manje amagesi anjalo akhiqizwa nakwezinye izilwane ngemuva kokufa kwazo. Kodwa ngenxa yokuthi umzimba womkhomo mkhulu, ukhiqiza amagesi amaningi.

Lokhu kwandisa ingcindezi emzimbeni wakhe. Ekugcineni ngenxa yengcindezi eyandisiwe. Amagesi anqwabelene, izicubu, inyama, njll. Kuyaphoqeleka ukubaleka ngamaphuzu abuthakathaka.

Lokhu kudala ukuqhuma. Ngakho-ke kunconywa njalo ukuthi ungami noma uhlale kumkhomo ofile. Njengoba lokhu kungaholela ekwandeni kwengcindezi ezindaweni ezibuthakathaka.

Lokhu kuholela ekuqhumeni. Yini ebangela amagagasi? Amagagasi ukukhuphuka nokuwa kwezikhathi zolwandle endaweni ethile. Lapho ulwandle lufinyelela ukuphakama kwalo okukhulu kakhulu.

Kuyaziwa njengamagagasi aphezulu nokuthi lapho ulwandle lusendaweni ephakeme kakhulu. Kuyaziwa ngokuthi i-tide low. I-Tid Lokhu ikakhulukazi kubangelwa amandla adonsela phansi enyanga.

Kodwa kanjani? Ingxenye yomhlaba ebheke enyangeni izwa ngamandla adonsela phansi. Ngasenyangeni kuqhathaniswa nesikhungo somhlaba. Ingxenye ebheke enyangeni iba phakathi nendawo.

Idala ukuqhuma futhi ngaleyo ndlela inyuse izinga lolwandle futhi ibangele uzamcolo. Manje isikhungo somhlaba sithola amandla amakhulu adonsela phansi. Ngasenyangeni kunengxenye ekude nenyanga.

Ngakho-ke, le ngxenye ikhishwa esikhungweni. Lokhu futhi kuholela ekuphakameni okukhulu kolunye uhlangothi. Futhi.

Izindawo eziphakathi kwamagagasi amabili aphakeme. Lapho izinga lolwandle lehla khona, uhlangabezana nomsinga ophansi. Kungani izinyoka zichitha? Linda.

Ngizochaza. Lapho inyoka ikhula. Isendlalelo sabo sangaphandle sesikhumba, esibizwa ngokuthi i-epidermis, asikhuli noma sikhule naso, ngakho-ke inyoka ikhipha i-epidermis yayo njalo ukuvumela umzimba wayo ukuba uqhubeke ukhula, futhi ukuchitheka nakho kusiza ukususa noma yiziphi izimuncagazi ezihlasele i-epidermis .

Ngakho inyoka? Thenga isikhumba esisha? Cha, lalela kuqala. Ngaphambi kokuchitha, inyoka ikhula i-epidermis entsha ngaphansi kwendala. Futhi ikhipha uketshezi phakathi kwe-epidermis endala neyintsha.

Lolu ketshezi lusiza ukuhlukanisa i-epidermis endala kweye entsha Uma nje lokho sekuqediwe, inqubo yokuhluza iyaqala. Ukususa i-epidermis endala, inyoka ihlikihla ikhanda layo kunoma iyiphi indawo eqinile. Kwakha izinyembezi noma eduze komlomo noma eduze kwekhala.

Ngemuva kwalokho udonsa futhi anyakaze umzimba wakhe kunoma iyiphi indawo eqinile. Futhi kancane uphuma ku-epidermis endala.

Iyiphi indlu elungele uPluto?

UPlutophakathiIzindluku-Astrology. Ngamunyeindluiphethe indawo yokuphila.UPlutophakathiizindluibonisa ukuthi iyiphi indawo yokuphila ohlangabezana noguquko olujulile nemicimbi eshintsha impilo. Le planethi ekufundweni kwezinkanyezikuyintookuhambisana nokuhlukumezeka nobuhlungu obukhulu, kepha nokuvuselelwa nokuzalwa kabusha.

Kube nesasasa elikhulu emphakathini wasemkhathini ngo-2015. Lokho kungenxa yokuthi isithombe esihle kunazo zonke esake saba naso ngohlelo lwePluto kwaba yilesi. UHubble wasikinya ilensi yakhe ePluto futhi, kepha incane kakhulu futhi ikude, okuhle kakhulu ongakubona kunemibala embalwa.

Kepha ngo-2015 konke lokho kwashintsha. Lokho kungenxa yokuthi umkhumbi-mkhathi waseNew Horizons wandiza wedlula iplanethi encane ngemuva kohambo lweminyaka eyisishiyagalolunye futhi yayingakaze ibone imininingwane nokwethembeka kukaPluto nezinyanga zayo njengathi ngaphambili. Ngakho-ke umbuzo uwukuthi, yini i-New Horizons probe eyibonile futhi yathola ngesikhathi sokuhamba kwayo kohlelo lwePluto? Ngingu-Alex McColgan futhi ubona i-Astrum.

Hlala nami kule ndatshana futhi ngizokukhombisa konke okuvelele kusuka kumishini yeNew Horizons kuye ePluto, iPluto bekungowokugcina emaplanethi wendabuko ayi-9 okufanele ahlolwe. Lokhu bekungenxa yokuqhela kwayo kithi, kepha futhi ngoba - ungakukholwa - bekungathathwa njengento ethakazelisa kakhulu yasezulwini. Ngenhlanhla, ithimba laseNew Horizon licindezelwe kanzima ukuthi livunyelwe ukwenza lo msebenzi, futhi ngonyaka ka-2006 iNew Horizons yethulwa njengengxenye yohlelo lweNASA lweNew Frontier lwemishini yesikhala sesabelomali maphakathi.

Inhloso yale mishini kwakuwukufika ePluto ngokushesha okukhulu, futhi ngenxa yalokho, iNew Horizons kwakungukuqaliswa okusheshayo kunakho konke. Kwakuwumkhumbi-mkhathi olula erokheni elinamandla kakhulu ngaleso sikhathi - i-Atlas V. Yashosholoza ngamahora ayi-9 nje kuphela ngenyanga.

Imishini ye-Apollo yathatha isikhathi esiphindwe kayishumi. Endleleni eya ePluto, yayisebenzisa iJupiter njengomsizi wamandla adonsela phansi, owayegunda iminyaka emithathu ngaphambi kwesikhathi sokufika. Iphinde yasebenzisa iJupiter njengokuhlolwa kohlelo lwayo futhi yathatha izindatshana ezithile ezibonakalayo nezithombe zeplanethi nezinyanga zayo.

Ngemuva kwalokhu kuhlolwa okuyimpumelelo, i-New Horizons yalala ukuvimbela izinsimbi zayo ukuthi zingagugi kuze kufike indlela yayo ngonyaka we-2015, iqembu labuyisa amasistimu ku-inthanethi futhi umkhumbi-mkhathi wathumela emuva izithombe zohlelo lwePluto nsuku zonke. Lesi bekuyisikhathi esithokozisa ngokumangazayo ukuthi abathandi bomlando basibuke. Saqala ukuthola izinkomba mayelana nokuthi uPluto angabukeka kanjani futhi sibone ukuthi uPluto wayehluke kanjani enyangeni yakhe enkulu, uCharon.

Nsuku zonke isixazululo sasikhuphuka futhi imininingwane eminingi ingabonakala. Yebo, zazikhona ezinye izinhloso zesayensi zale mishini, kepha into ethakazelisa kakhulu ngami ukuthi ibibukeka kanjani. Ngokushesha kuzobonakala okuthile okubukeka njengokuma kwenhliziyo kwiplanethi emfushane! NgoJulayi 14, uphenyo lweNew Horizons lwasondela ku-12 500 km ukusuka ebusweni kusuka kubalawuli bePluto aluzange lubonakale ngokushesha.

Okokuqala, iphenyo lalimatasa kakhulu lithatha izithombe eziningi ngesikhathi se-flyby ukulithumela ngokushesha. Lapho nje ukudluliswa kwedatha kuqala, kwakudingeka basebenzise isivinini se-uplink esisheshayo esingu-1 kbit / sec kuphela. Ngaphezu kwalokho, kube nokubambezeleka kwamahora angu-4,5 phakathi komkhumbi-mkhathi noMhlaba.

Kepha lokho elikubonile futhi elikubuyisele emuva bekumangalisa: izintaba, amathafa eqhwa, izinguzunga zeqhwa nomoya. Futhi ibinombono omuhle ngezinye zezinyanga zikaPluto ezimbozwe ngokuningiliziwe phakathi naleyondiza. Enye yezinto zokuqala ezaqashelwa ngePluto ubuhlobo bayo obungajwayelekile nezinyanga zayo.

Okokuqala, inyanga enkulu kunazo zonke kaPluto, uCharon, ijikeleza kakhulu eduze kwePluto futhi futhi inkulu kakhulu ngokuqhathanisa. Lokhu kusho ukuthi isikhungo samandla adonsela phansi sezinto ezimbili, noma ngamanye amagama, isikhungo sabo sobunzima, singaphandle kwento eyinhloko. Empeleni bobabili bazungeza iphuzu esikhaleni.

Hhayi lokho kuphela, kepha zombili izinto zixhunywe ngamagagasi. Okusho ukuthi, uma ume kolunye, olunye alusuki kulelo phuzu esibhakabhakeni. Lokhu akujwayelekile impela ngoba ngenkathi ezinye izinyanga zixhunywe kwiplanethi yomama wazo, iplanethi ayixhunyanisiwe nenyanga.

Ngokubuka, iCharon yehluke kakhulu kuPluto, imnyama kakhulu. Lokhu kusho ukuthi azinomsuka ofanayo. Ezinye izinyanga zikaPluto zincane kakhulu futhi zinobubanzi obungamakhilomitha ambalwa kuphela.

Imizila yawo iyisiyingi esehlukile futhi yonke ingumbumbulu womjikelezo wePluto. Isici esikhulu kunazo zonke esibonakalayo ePluto yilesi simo esikhulu senhliziyo, esashaya umhlaba lapho siqala ukubonakala. Kusukela lapho yabizwa nge-Sputnik Planitia.

Ngosayizi weTexas futhi inombala oqinile ohluke kakhulu endaweni ezungezile ithafa elikhulu leqhwa. Eqinisweni, ngesikhathi sokundiza, kwaqinisekiswa ukuthi u-98% wobuso bukaPluto yiqhwa le-nitrogen. Ngokwesilinganiso, izinga lokushisa ebusweni bePluto lingu -229 ° C, okusho ukuthi iqhwa lamanzi lizoba lukhuni futhi libe namandla.

Ngakolunye uhlangothi, iqhwa le-nitrogen liziphatha njengeqhwa lamanzi emhlabeni kuleli zinga lokushisa, ngakho-ke lingakwazi ukugeleza njengeqhwa. Lokhu kubonakala ikakhulukazi emaphethelweni enhliziyo, izinguzunga zeqhwa ezigelezela ezikhaleni ezizungeze imigodi nezintaba. Amathafa eqhwa ngokwawo anezimo ezinkulu ze-polygon kuyo yonke indawo.

Awekho futhi ama-craters, okusho ukuthi kufanele kube yinto entsha noma evuselelwa njalo. Kungenzeka ukuthi ineminyaka eyizigidi eziyishumi kuphela ubudala. Amaseli we-polygonal abonisa ama-ridges abangelwa kakhulu yi-sublimation, inqubo lapho iqhwa liphenduka liqonde ngqo kugesi.

Yize kungaziwa ngokuqinisekile, iSputnik Planitia kungenzeka ukuthi yakhiwa ngomthelela, futhi iqhwa lagcwalisa umgodi ovela olwandle olungaphansi kolwandle olungaba khona. Leli bhishi eligcwalisiwe empeleni lidala amandla adonsela phansi amahle. I-gravity anomaly yilapho amandla adonsela phansi ehlukile ngesikhathi esisodwa kunakwenye into entweni.

Ishidi leqhwa libheke ngqo kude neCharon, okungayiqondanisa ne-eksisi yamagagasi ento. Ngenxa yebanga elifushane phakathi kwePluto neCharon, imiphumela yolwandle inamandla kakhulu ezintweni zombili. Lokhu kungaba yisizathu sokuthi kungani uPluto eboshelwe kuCharon ngamagagasi futhi izinto ezimbili azikwazi ukubheka kude.

Ezungeze amathafa eqhwa kunezintaba ezinkulu zezintaba ezenziwe ngeqhwa lamanzi, okuthi uma ubuka eceleni, ubabaze. Iqhwa lamanzi yilona kuphela uhlobo lweqhwa olutholwe ePluto olungaba namandla ngokwanele ukuxhasa ukuphakama kwamakhilomitha amaningana kuleli zinga lokushisa. Kutholakale ngaphansi kwezintaba ePluto, kungahle kube khona nama-cryovolcanoes, omunye wabangenele ukhetho yiWright Mons.

Ingamakhilomitha ama-4 ukuphakama, enye yezindawo eziphakeme kakhulu ePluto, futhi kunokudangala okukhulu phakathi. Ama-cryovolcanoes angaba yisici esinqumayo ebusweni obusha bukaPluto. Esinye isici esisobala sePluto impahla emnyama ebonakala isakazeke ebusweni kwezinye izindawo.

Indawo enkulu kunazo zonke ibizwa ngeCthulhu Macula ebonwe kulesi sithombe. Umbala omnyama kukholakala ukuthi uyidiphozi yama-tholines, uhlobo lwetiyela olwenziwe ngama-hydrocarbon ahlanganyele nelanga. Imali efanayo iyatholakala kwenye yezinyanga zikaSaturn, i-Iapetus, futhi bheka, yingakho inqubo ibonakale kwenye indawo kusistimu elanga.

Isifunda esisePluto siminyene kakhulu kunenhliziyo, siphakamisa ukuthi ubuso bakhona budala kakhulu. Maphakathi ne-Cthulhu Macula, izintaba zingabonakala yiqhwa okuthiwa i-methane iqhwa. IMethane ibukeka iminyene ezindaweni eziphakeme ePluto kuneqhwa.

Isici sokugcina engizosisho lapha lesi sifunda esibizwa ngeTartarus Dorsa. Iqoqo elandayo, elihluke kakhulu lezintaba eziphakeme zamamitha ayi-500 ezifana nesikhumba senyoka noma amagxolo esihlahla. Uma lokho kuyiqiniso, iPluto ukuphela kwendawo endaweni yethu yelanga ngaphandle koMhlaba lapho babonwa khona; ngisho naseMhlabeni ziyivelakancane kakhulu kepha ezinye zingatholakala oGwadule i-Atacama nakwezinye izindawo eziphakeme ezomile eziphakeme ePluto zikhulu kakhulu futhi zimboza indawo enkulu kakhulu kuneMhlaba.

Singacabanga nje ukuthi babukeka kanjani eduze. Kimi, ukutholakala okuhlaba umxhwele kakhulu i-New Horizons engakuqinisekisa ukuthi iPluto inomoya, kepha izithombe ziyamangalisa. Ngenxa yobukhulu obuncane bukaPluto namandla adonsela phansi abuthakathaka, umkhathi ubonakala unwebeke phezulu ngaphezu kobuso bukaPluto.

Umkhathi womhlaba mkhulu kakhulu futhi uminyene uma kuqhathaniswa nePluto futhi ugona amaplanethi ngokulinganayo tig htly ngoba amandla adonsela phansi aqina kakhulu. Ingcindezi yasemkhathini ePluto iphansi kakhulu, kepha cishe ama-microbar ayi-10 noma ama-microbar ayi-100 000 kuya ku-1 000 000 angaphansi kwengcindezi yomhlaba eMhlabeni. Kukholakala ukuthi uma izinga lokushisa likhuphuka futhi iqhwa lingaphezulu libe amagesi, le nqubo ingakhuphula ingcindezi ifike kuma-milligar ayi-18 kuye kwangama-280, iphindwe kathathu ingcindezi yaphezulu kuMars nengxenye yesine yengcindezi yasemhlabeni esiyibonile amathafa aneqhwa.

Isikhathi sokugcina kwakunguPluto. Lokhu kuminyana komkhathi kwasolwa eminyakeni engama-900,000 eyedlule. Kule ngcindezi nasekushiseni, izimo zingahle zilungele ukwakheka kwe-nitrogen engamanzi ebusweni bukaPluto.

Obunye ubufakazi balokhu bungatholakala lapha kulokho okubonakala kuyichibi elifriziwe. Kunoma ikuphi, ubungako bomkhathi kaPluto bungaguquguquka ngesilinganiso sezine kungakapheli unyaka ngenxa yokuguquguquka kwesizini. Lokhu kungukuphikisana okukhulu nezinye izinto zesistimu yelanga, nama-atmospheres ngokuvamile ahlala efanelekile.

Umkhathi wakhiwe yiqhwa elifanayo elitholakala ligcwele ebusweni, okuyi-nitrogen, methane ne-carbon monoxide. Okunye okutholayo okuthokozisayo i-New Horizons okwenziwe ngomkhathi ukuthi inezingqimba ze-haze ezingafika kuma-20. Izendlalelo zeHaze ngokwazo zazingalindelekile, kepha inani lazo lalikhona.

Kwezinye zalezi zithombe zingabonakala kahle futhi zivele njengezingqimba ezincane zenkungu. Kulesi sithombe ungabona ukukhanya kwelanga kugudla ungqimba olunjalo, izithunzi ezivela ezintabeni ngokusobala ngokungafani nokukhanya kwelanga okukhanya phakathi komkhathi. Izendlalelo azibonakali zilingana emhlabeni.

Lapha ungabona ukuthi ungqimba lwenkungu ephezulu ngaphezu kobuso, kepha kulolu hlangothi lwesithombe oluthinta ngaphezulu kukhona izithombe ezinhle kakhulu zikaPluto, futhi ngazisindisa ngamabomu kwaze kwaba sekupheleni. Ungakwazisa ngempela ukujula nobukhulu bezintaba; IPluto icishe ibukeke njengethopholoji lamathoyizi ngenxa yesimo sendawo esibi ngokweqile, kepha lezi zintaba zibukeka ziphakeme kakhulu ngoba iPluto incane futhi amandla ayo adonsela phansi awanele ukuqeda isihloko. Ukuthandile okubonile namuhla Ama-athikili wokubuka muhle, futhi uma ufuna ukunweba nokugcina lolo lwazi, ukubheja kwakho okuhle kakhulu ukuzibandakanya ngokuzibandakanya emapuzzle nasekuxazululeni izinkinga, yingakho i-Astrum isebenzisane ne-glanticant.org, iwebhusayithi lokho kungukuncoma okuhle ekubukeni kokungenzi lutho kwama-athikili wokufundisa.

Cishe ulapha ngoba ufuna ukufunda kabanzi nge-astronomy ngakho-ke i-Brilliant.org ingaba yilokho okufunayo ukuze uphonsele inselelo ulwazi lwakho futhi ikusize ufunde kabanzi. I-Brilliant inezinkinga eziningi ezilandelelwe kahle zezinkinga ukukusiza wazi kahle zonke izinhlobo zezihloko zobuchwepheshe.

Bonke ngokusobala bathanda isayensi yezinkanyezi, abanenkambo ekhethekile. Ungase futhi uthokozele izifundo zabo ezihlobene neClassical Mechanics kanye neGravitationalPhysics. Uma uvakashela i-brillant.org/Astrum ungabhalisa mahhala ukuthola isampula yezifundo zabo, futhi ngalesi sixhumanisi ababambiqhaza bokuqala abangama-200 bazothola isaphulelo esingu-20% kokubhaliselwe konyaka kwe-Brilliant Premium.

Lokhu okubhaliselwe engikusebenzisayo. I-Brilliant ngumdlalo ofanele wesiteshi sami ngakho-ke zihlole. Imininingwane ethunyelwa yiNew Horizons eMhlabeni izobhekelwa futhi eminyakeni ezayo.

Kodwa-ke, iNew Horizons inezinto ezibheke kuzo i-mission entsha, ukundiza kwento encane yaseKuiper Belt eyaziwa njenge-2014 MU69, ngenxa yokuthi izofika ngoJanuwari 1, 2019. Uma ufuna ukufunda kabanzi ngalo msebenzi, futhi ufuna uku bona indatshana ekhethekile kaPluto, ngizoyenza, ngakho-ke ngicela ubhalise ngokuzayo ukuze ungaphuthelwa yilutho. Futhi, hlola ezinye izindatshana engizenzile ngezihloko ezahlukahlukene zezinkanyezi.

Siyabonga ngosekelo lwakho sizokubona ngokuzayo.

Iyiphi indlu engafanele iLanga?

Umhla ka-6, 7, no-10izindlu ezimbiOkweILanga. INyanga, iJupiter neMars amaplanethi anobungane neILanga, lapho uSaturn, uVenus, uRahu noKetu beyizitha. Owokuqala yiPuccka Ghar, unomphelaindlukanye ne-indluwokuphakanyiswa kweILanga, kanti owesi-7indluiku-indluyokonakala.12. 2018.

Ubhadane luye lwaqubuka kakhulu emakethe yezindlu, ukuthengiswa kwekhaya kufinyelele ezingeni eliphezulu kakhulu kusukela ngo-2006. Ngiyazi ukuthi ngichithe isikhathi esiningi ngifunda iZillow. Isidingo esingahluthiseki emakethe yezindlu esidala ukuthi ukuthengisa kukhuphuke kakhulu, ngokusho kwesazi esaziwayo sezindlu, njengoba ukuthengiswa kwekhaya elisha kukhuphuke ngamaphesenti ayi-19 kusuka ngonyaka odlule.

Ngokuvamile abantu babheka indlu abafuna ukuyithenga noma ukuyakha. Umbuzo wakho wokuqala akukhona ukuthi unabafafazi yini kuleli bhilidi noma uqalaza bese ubona leli hlathi elihle bese uthi, awu nkosi yami, lizoshisa eminyakeni emibili? 2020 futhi kwakusho izinhlekelele eziningi zemvelo. Kwakuyisikhathi somlilo esibi kunazo zonke e-U.

S. umlando, futhi kwakukhona iziphepho ezingaphezu kweshumi nambili, ngasinye sibiza ngaphezu kwezigidi eziyizinkulungwane zamadola, futhi ngeke sikwazi ukwakha izindlu ezingacimi umlilo, izindlu ezingacimi umlilo, ngoba ngokuvamile akekho ofuna ukuhlala kuzo . Ukwakha isizwe esiqinile kusindisa imali, kuvikela imvelo futhi kusindisa izimpilo.

Ngo-2019, abantu abasha abacishe babe yisigidi basala dengwane ngenxa yezinhlekelele zesimo sezulu e-United States. Izindaba ezimnandi ukuthi lelo nani lehle lisuka endaweni eyodwa izigidi ezimbili ezinhlanu ngo-2018 kanye nephuzu elilodwa eziyisikhombisa ngonyaka wezi-2017, okuwumkhiqizo ophephe kakhulu owenza izimpilo zabantu zibe ngcono kakhulu. Ngabe singenza kangcono? Impela.

Ngaso sonke isikhathi singenza izinto kangcono, izindleko yinto enkulu, ngiyazi ukuthi bekungeyami ngenkathi ngenza ucwaningo lwami lweZillow, kodwa nginenhlanhla yokwazi ukuthenga indlu enokuphepha okuhle, njengalabo abafafaza umlilo. Ngakho-ke iMelika idinga ukufaka abantu abaningi emakhaya angakwazi ukumelana ngokushesha nolaka olukhulayo lwezinhlekelele zemvelo. Kepha ngabe i-US esondela ezindlini zokwakha ayilungile ngokuphelele? Futhi kufanele zakhiwe kanjani izindlu e-USA? Zingaphezu kwezigidi eziyi-15 izindlu zokuhlala ezingabanikazi abazimele ezaqedwa ngo-2020.

Lezi kufanele ngabe zakhelwe kumakhodi nezindinganiso zokwakha zeziphathimandla ezilawulayo zendawo, imvamisa kususelwa ezinkombandlela ze-International Code Council noma i-ICC. Amakhodi ngokuyisisekelo athi uma unalolu hlobo lomsebenzi ngaphakathi kwesakhiwo, kulolu hlobo lwesakhiwo, ungasebenzisa lawa mazinga ukuhlangabezana nezinga lethu lokuphepha, inhlanzeko, njll. Into yokuqala okufanele uyenze lapho wakha endaweni ukujwayela ngokwakho ngezinyathelo eziqondile zokulawula ezizothinta inqubo yokwakhiwa nokwakhiwa kuleyo ndawo ethile.

Bese imininingwane, ubheka ikhodi, yize thina ku-FEMA sisebenza kule nqubo futhi sizibophezele ekukhuthazeni le mithetho yokwakha engamelana nobungozi nemithetho yomlilo kuze kufike ezingeni lendawo ukuze yamukele, yamukele futhi isebenzise lamakhodi namazinga amasha . Ochwepheshe bezezimboni bazama ukuhambisana nezinguquko zobuchwepheshe futhi bacabangele izinto eziguqukayo zemvelo lapho benza amakhodi. Njalo eminyakeni emithathu baphinde bashicilele amakhodi abo abukeza lezi zinto ngendlela yokubonisana nomphakathi bese ibuyiselwa ebulungwini bonke.

Banovoti lokuvota ukuthi bazolwethula yini lolu shintsho lwekhodi. Ngicabanga ukuthi enye yezinselelo ezinkulu kunqubo yokuthuthukisa ikhodi ukuthi kunezinhlobo zonke zezintshisekelo nezidingo ezincintisanayo. Futhi lokho kubaluleke kakhulu.

Uma unommeli wokushintsha ikhodi futhi uzama ukuqhubekisela phambili leyo nguquko yekhodi, kuzodingeka ube usohlelweni. Lawa makhodi asetshenziswa ezingeni lendawo. Izinhlawulo zingabandakanya ukuhoxisa izimvume noma ukubambelela ekwakhiweni nesikhathi sokwakha imali.

Inkulungwane yamadola engezwe nganoma yisiphi isikhathi entengo yekhaya elisha izovimba amakhaya ayi-153,967 ekuthengeni lelo khaya. Ukwanda nje kwenkulungwane kwamadola. Ukwakhiwa okusheshayo kungasiza ekongeni imali esikhathini esifushane kepha kube kubi ngokuhamba kwesikhathi.

Isiphepho sokugcina esisibone eFlorida naleyo ndlu eyodwa ebhishi sasiyisixazululo esihle kakhulu. Kwakuyisixazululo esabiza ngokweqile, kepha sasisikhulu kakhulu kunesixazululo bonke omakhelwane babo ababenaso lapho bephelelwa izindlu. Kusukela ama-I-Code, amakhodi wamazwe omhlaba, akhishwa okokuqala ngo-2000, ngokwesibonelo, omasipala abawamukelayo basindise izwe cishe iphuzu elilodwa kwezigidigidi eziyisithupha.

Lokho kungu-B billion ngokwesilinganiso. Ukuhlaziywa komonakalo ovela kuzikhukhula, izivunguvungu nokuzamazama komhlaba. Ukwakha ukumelana namandla emvelo kungaba nzima, ikakhulukazi njengoba ukuqonda kwethu imvelo kuyashintsha.

Uma ufuna ukuthenga indlu, into engcono kakhulu ongayenza ngokubuka kukazamcolo ukwazi ukuthi ingozi yakho yamanje ivela kuphi manje nokuthi izokhula kanjani eminyakeni engama-30 ezayo. Futhi ubungozi bezikhukhula akuyona into e-static yesikhathi esisodwa ukubheka, ingozi eqhubekayo eqhubeka ikhula kakhulu kwezinye izingxenye zezwe. Njengoba amakhodi wokwakha engashintsha njalo, ukunamathela kuwo kulula ukukusho kunokukwenza.

Isibonelo, kuya ngokuthi indlu yakhiwa nini emphakathini, kungadingeka izimvula ezahlukahlukene noma imithetho yomlilo. Uma unesonto elikhulu, ungathola ukuthi wakha ngaphansi kwemithetho ehlukile. Futhi okulula kakhulu ukukuhlola ukukhuphuka kwezindleko.

Isibonelo, abaninikhaya bangafaka imali kuzinyathelo zokuqina ukuze banamathele kukhodi kunokuthenga ikhaya elisha sha. Njengoba sisebenza ukubhekana nesakhiwo esivele sikhona namakhaya amasha, sithola ukuthi kwesinye isikhathi kugxilwa kakhulu kokusha kungaphezu kwephesenti inani lentengo okufanele libe yilo. Ngakho-ke asikwazi ukuthwala lo mthwalo emakhaya amasha ngoba silahlekelwa abathengi abaningi bokuqala nabathengi bokuqala.

Kunezibonelo ezweni lonke lapho imiphakathi ihlole ubungozi yabe isamukela amakhodi ezakhiwo eziqinile ukuyilungisa. Isibonelo, umlilo awukwazi ukuwela umgwaqo uma kungekho nolunye lwamalangabi olubasayo kolunye uhlangothi lomgwaqo. Imiphakathi esengozini yezikhukhula ingakhetha ukumba imisele emgwaqweni ukuze igweme ukuthola imvula, kunokuba ivumele lo mkhukula ungene ekhaya.

Ngakho-ke esifuna ukuqiniseka ukuthi singakususa konke ukunganaki futhi, ezindaweni ezinabantu abaningi, sikwenze lokho ngokuvezwa okuncane kakhulu noma okungenakho kwamafasitela phakathi kwezindlu. Futhi singenza izinto zangaphandle zingashisi, kufaka phakathi ama-eaves wethu nokubekwa kwama-eaves ethu, ngokwesibonelo ngokusebenzisa usimende we-fiber ukuze sibe nosimende we-fiber ezindongeni. Singakwazi uku-oda isitini esingashisi njengebhulokhi noma okuthile kuso, bese sisebenzisa into engeke ivuthe ukucisha kanye nokushaya isibhakela KULUNGILE.

Uphahla olungashisi olusiza kakhulu. Izikhukhula zinzima kakhulu kunomlilo, kodwa izinga lezikhukhula elinikezwa uHlelo Lukazwelonke Lomshuwalense Wezikhukhula linikeza umhlahlandlela kubabambiqhaza. Ngingasho ukuthi ngokubona kwami ​​kuncane ngokuthi sakha izindlu ngokungafanele yini, kodwa kunalokho sizakhela kuphi lezi zindlu? Ngakho-ke uma ubheka izinto ezivela ku-FEMA nezindawo ezikhethekile ezinobungozi bezikhukhula ziza nokuphakama kwesikhukhula.

Lezi zindawo eziphakeme zezikhukhula zisekelwe ezifundweni zobunjiniyela ezimangalisayo ezazizenza ngaleso sikhathi. Inkinga ukuthi cishe amaphesenti ayi-11 alezi zifundo asukela eminyakeni yama-1970 kanye nama-80s. Futhi uma ucabanga ukuthi imvelo ishintshe kanjani kusukela ngama-70s kanye nama-80s ukuze ingakufaki lokhu kubude bezikhukhula zomhlaba omusha nalapho kufanele sicabange ngokwakha nokuthi kungani umuntu eqala ukuqonda ukuthi kungani lokho? kungaba yinkinga.

Ngaphezu kwalokho, kunengxenye yezwe lonke engenayo imithethonqubo ngaphakathi kwendawo ethile enobungozi bezikhukhula ngoba ayikaze ibalazwe. Amakhodi angaxazulula noma yini. Ukuziphatha komhlali kudlala indima enkulu ekunqandeni umlilo ungabhebhetheki.

Akusisizi thina uma sishiya izinkuni zethu emphemeni kuyo yonke inkathi yomlilo. Akusizi uma sinefenisha yepatio evutha umlilo eduze kwamawindi wethu wokubuka. Ucwaningo olunjengoCohen lungasindisa izimpilo nezigidigidi ngonyaka.

Kubalulekile futhi ukwazi ukuthi kwakhiwa kuphi izakhiwo. Kuningi umninikhaya angakwenza ukuvimbela umlilo ukuthi ungasabalali uqhubeke futhi udale umonakalo omkhulu kunokumane uthathe isinyathelo noma ukugcina igceke lakho nezinye izinto ngendlela efanayo nezikhukhula lapho Wandisa khona ikhaya lakho, noma ungakwazi faka isivimbeli sokubuyela emuva noma ube nezikhwama zesihlabathi nokunye okunjalo okulungele leyo micimbi yezikhukhula lapho wazi ukuthi ziyeza. Izindaba ezimnandi ukuthi ukufuduka kwenhlekelele yemvelo kuya ngokuncipha, ikakhulu ngenxa yocwaningo olungcono kanye nezinto ezintsha zokubhekana nale nkinga.

Umbono wethu ngomlilo wequbula oqubuka emphakathini njenge-tsunami yamagesi ashisayo akuyona into eyenzekayo empeleni. Sibe nempumelelo ebonakalayo ekwenzeni ngcono ukuphepha emlilweni esikhathini esedlule. Angazi ngendlu yakho, ungabona ikhanda lokufafaza ngemuva.

Yingakho ke. Futhi lokho kwakhelwe kumakhodi wemodeli. Ngokwezinga elithile, ngifisa sengathi ngabe ibinamandla, kepha kukhona labo abacabanga ukuthi lokhu kungumthwalo.

Kuyinkinga yomthelela wezindleko. Kunzima kweminye imiphakathi ngenxa yezinkinga zokuphakelwa kwamanzi. Kunezinkinga ngayo, ayiphelele, kepha impela ingcono kunokuthi ungenzi lutho.

Senze imodeli yezikhukhula kazwelonke ye-United States yonke engasetshenziswa endaweni eyodwa. Ngakho-ke ngokuya ngohlobo lwesakhiwo, ukuphakama kwesakhiwo, ukubaluleka kwesakhiwo nemodeli yethu yezikhukhula, singasebenzisa amabutho ombutho onjiniyela, abizwa ngokuthi ama-curve curves curves, ukwazi ukuthi amanzi angakanani angahambisana nokuthi yimuphi umonakalo lesi sakhiwo samanzi bese ubala leso sikhathi bese usidlulisela kuwe njengomsebenzisi. Ngakho-ke manje awazi nje ukuthi ubungozi obungakanani, kepha nokuthi yini engakubiza uma lo mcimbi uvela.

UCohen usebenzisana nezikhulu zikahulumeni nezasekhaya ukufundisa kangcono abakhi ngokusatshalaliswa kwemililo yehlathi ngocwaningo lwakhe lokunqanda izindawo ezithungela umlilo ekhaya. Ngokuyinhloko kufanele siyichaze inkinga njengenkinga yokushisa umlilo, hhayi njengenkinga yokulwa nomlilo wehlathi. Sinezinqumo eziningi esingazenza ngempumelelo ukushintsha izimo zendawo yasekhaya nendawo yakhona eseduze.

Futhi asinayo indlela yokulawula lo mlilo omkhulu wequbula. Le mizamo iphinde isekelwe ngokuphelele ezingeni likahulumeni yi-FEMA. Ngifuna ngempela ukukhuthaza abantu ukuthi baye kuwebhusayithi ye-FEMA, balande uhlelo lokusebenza, baye kuwebhusayithi yoMnyango Wezomlilo wase-US futhi balande imininingwane.

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